With concerns diseases of the orbit, these include various tumors (which may be benign or malignant), fractures of the bone wall and inflammatory diseases (such as thyroid orbitopathy, which can cause exophthalmos and compression of the optic nerve).
Injuries of the eyelids and bones around the eye (orbit) are quite common in car accidents, quarrels, sports etc. It is very important for the condition to be properly assessed from the beginning and all necessary steps to taken so as to obtain the best possible aesthetic restoration and for the vision to be safeguarded.
In most cases the disease, it appears that the thyroid gland is hyperactive, although it is possible to have Graves' disease without hormonal disorders.
It appears with a variety of signs such as exophthalmos, eyelid edema and conjunctival vascular congestion, but these findings are non-specific and appear in other diseases of the orbit. An interesting point that can be observed in Graves' disease is the delayed descent of the upper eyelid (lid lag), when the patient is asked to turn his gaze downward.
Ultrasound and CT scans are significant tests for Graves disease, which reveal the dilation of the exophthalmic muscles and help in the differential diagnosis of possible neoplasms in the area.
The treatment of Graves' disease should be as conservative as possible. This includes the use of artificial tears to prevent dry eye and systemic administration of corticosteroids, particularly if optic neuropathy co-exists. In severe cases with marked protrusion of the bulb, radiotherapy and/or surgical decompression of the orbit may be useful.