Most cases of glaucoma in childhood are individual and not associated with other diseases
Most cases of glaucoma in childhood are individual and not associated with other diseases. There are some exceptions under certain rare syndromes.
The Sturge-Weber syndrome is a very rare disorder present at birth, with neurological problems and a typical red discoloration of the skin’s surface. It stops sharply in the midline and it may be accompanied by contralateral glaucoma on the same side.
Several rare hereditary syndromes, such as the syndromes Axenfeld- Rieger and Lowe, with anomalies in the iris, in the bones and teeth, are also accompanied by glaucoma. Lowe syndrome occurs mostly in boys and even includes cataract, kidney damage and growth retardation.
The aniridia is a very rare condition in which the iris (the colored part of the eye) is absent. Parents may notice that their child's eyes are very dark, but what they are actually facing is a huge pupil. The aniridia is accompanied by clouding of the cornea, cataract, nystagmus and glaucoma.
There is no cure, so these children’s vision is around 1/10 for the rest of their lives. A point of attention in children with aniridia is that some of them have an increased probability for a malignant kidney tumor (tumor Wilm), thereby their lives are directly threatened.